All articles

The Aneuploidy Conundrum - Why Are Many Human Cancers Aneuploid when Aneuploidy Has Detrimental Effects on Human Development and Has Also Been Shown to Reduce Cellular Fitness?

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.10.001
Sarah Adams

Cancer is characterised by its capacity for over-proliferation. Aneuploidy, meanwhile, has long been associated with a decreased rate of cell proliferation in untransformed cells and yet also predisposes to cancer. The paradoxical nature of these findings has meant that the role of aneuploidy in cancer remains hotly debated.

The Cambridge Medicine Journal’s guide to summer research projects

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.09.002
Benjamin Beresford-Jones

Cambridge summers are long, and this provides the perfect opportunity to organise a research project. Research projects offer crucial insights into the world of academic science that can’t be attained from the medical course – they can also be helpful later in your career, as the experience helps in MB/PhD and Academic Fellowship applications, and research publications and posters can gain points when applying to hospitals for Foundation Year programmes.

Tongue-tied: Management in Pierre Robin Sequence

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.09.001
Nikita Rajaraman Rajaraman, Elvino Barreto

An 18-month-old male with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) presented to A&E with airway obstruction and hypoxia due to retroglossoptosis. The patient was resuscitated immediately and intubated. Gold standard treatment was surgical management by mandibular distraction osteogenesis. However, as the patient was unable to afford the surgery, a simpler and cheaper surgical technique had to be employed. The procedure involved pulling the base of the tongue anteriorly and tying to the hyoid bone. This maintained airway patency and patient was extubated. Mother was given feeding and positioning advice for the child. It is expected that the mandibular growth will eventually catch up with the tongue growth.

Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Diet: the Present and the Future

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.08.001
Irene Mateos Rodriguez

The frequent presence of gastrointestinal problems in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has led to attempts to understand how gastrointestinal disturbances relate to behaviour, and how modifying diets may help to modify behaviour. This review paper aims to summarise the rationale for managing symptoms of ASD through diet, the current status of research on diet and ASD, and the future of employing this approach to manage ASD.

The contribution of psychology to our present understanding of schizophrenia

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.07.004
Marta Isibor

Schizophrenia can be described in two ways. One perspective is a life-long devastating brain disease whereas the alternative is a distress resulting from difficult experiences which can be often successfully managed. The difference in the mere definition is not banal as it illuminates deeper discrepancies in current approaches to mental health.

Potential applications of three-dimensional bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

doi:10.7244/cmj.2017.03.002
Dominic Kwan

It can be argued that the concept of bioengineering began when Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh published “The Culture of Organs” in 1938, which described the equipment and methods that made the in vitro maintenance of organs possible. The final chapter of the book mentions an ‘ultimate goal’ of increasing the speed of wound healing. From its conception in the 1980s to the present day, scientists and medical researchers alike have been investigating the exciting prospects that three-dimensional printing offers to the field of medicine. Over the course of three decades, advances in this technology have led to several famous milestones, in the process spawning the term ‘bioprinting’. In contemporary medicine, bioprinting is beginning to play a role in regenerative medicine and clinical research by providing scientists with the ability to build tissue-engineered scaffolds, prosthetic limbs, and even functioning kidneys. One of the earliest cases of bioprinting made international headlines in 1999 when the world’s first 3D printed collagen scaffold was used for bladder augmentation in dogs. Then, in 2009, researchers at Organovo Inc., a 3D bioprinting company in the United States, created the world’s first bioprinted blood vessels for hepatic tissue by printing tri-layered analogues formed of human fibroblasts (to represent the adventitia), smooth muscle cells (to represent the media), and vascular endothelial cells (to represent the intima).

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